Tuesday 1 September 2015

Terracotta Bust of Edward VI from Queen Caroline's Library. and the four 16th century Lumley Castle Marble Busts now at Leeds Castle, Kent.

Terracotta bust of Edward VI
by Michael Rysbrack.
A survivor of the busts which were destroyed when a shelf at Windsor Castle collapsed in 1906
The Original Photographs were taken by John Wesley Livingstone (d. 1899) in 1874 for a royal inventory.

The busts had been moved to Windsor Castle in 1825 when Queen Caroline’s library at St James’s Palace was demolished.
Terracotta bust of Edward VI
Royal Collection.
Signed and dated 1738
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
Edward VI by Michael
Photograph taken by John Wesley Livingstone, 1876.
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
This bust appears to be based on an original watercolour by George Vertue (British Museum) or the engraving which followed it.
Edward VI was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, he succeeded his father in 1547 aged nine. Scholarly and firmly Protestant, he ruled during his minority with the help of a council, but was dominated first by theDuke of Somerset as Lord Protector, and later by the Duke of Northumberland. The latter induced Edward to will the crown to his daughter-in-law Lady Jane Grey, in order to ensure the Protestant succession.He died of tuberculosis shortly before his sixteenth birthday.
The Iconography of Edward VI - A brief Overview.
Edward VI.
William (Guilim)Scrots
The Royal Collection. 
 Oil on panel, circa 1646.
42.2" x 32.3"
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
This portrait was probably completed not long before the King's accession on 28 January 1547. The young prince wears a russet satin gown with hanging sleeves, trimmed with velvet, embroidered with gold thread and lined with lynx fur. The jewel around his neck is decorated with the coronet and feathers of the Prince of Wales.

The classical interior includes a column with a carved roundel at the base depicting a horseman and inscribed MARCVS. CVRCIVS. ROMAN[VS] ('Marcus Curtius, Roman'). A deer park can be seen through the window on the left, with Hunsdon House, Hertfordshire in the distance. Prince Edward was in residence at Hunsdon from May to July 1546.

According to George Vertue in 1734 the picture was 'originally only done to the knees, but since of late added at top something, and at bottom more to make the leggs & feet. but so ill and injudiciously drawn...'. These additions had disappeared by 1813 and the panel seems to have been cut down on all sides at some time.

The artist was also responsible for the portrait of Edward's half sister, Princess Elizabeth (RCIN 404444). Stylistically the two portraits are very alike; the panels are constructed in a similar way and may have come from the same tree. It is most likely that the painter of these two works was William Scrots, a Flemish artist who was employed by Henry VIII from 1545 until 1553.

The painting was inscribed at a slightly later date: Edwardus Sextus Rex / Angliae (Edward the Sixth King of England).


Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.

Workshop associated with' Master John'
1556 x 813 mm.
Edward VI.
Attributed William Scrots
94 x 71.1 cms
Provenance - Samuel Day (1757-1806), Hinton House, Hinton Charterhouse, Somerset;
By descent to Mary, his wife, who died in 1846 leaving Hinton House to Thomas Jones (1808-1848);
By descent to Edward Talbot Day Foxcroft (1837-1911), his son;
Thence by descent to the last owner.

This is an exceptionally rare seated, three-quarter length variant of perhaps the most important official portrait of Edward VI. Traditionally associated with William Scrots, who came to England in 1545 and succeeded Holbein as King's Painter, it depicts the young King wearing ermine robes and a richly bejewelled doublet, with the Order of St. George, seated on a throne holding a bible, presumably a reference to his role as Defender of the Faith and head of the Church of England. The type is thought to have originated in 1550, when marriage negotiations were underway between the King and the eldest daughter of Henry II of France. Good full length versions are at Hampton Court (Royal Collection), the Musée du Louvre, Paris, and in the Museum at Roanne, the latter of which is traditionally stated to have been given by the King to the Maréchal de St. André, who was sent to London in July 1551 to confer upon the King the Order of St. Michael.

King Edward VI, the only son of King Henry VIII by his third wife, Jane Seymour, succeeded to the throne on the death of his father in 1547, when only nine years old. The longed for male heir to the Tudor dynasty, Edward's reign was sadly brief, and he was only fifteen when he died of consumption in 1553. Despite this, and despite his youth, he displayed a deep interest in religious policy, and successfully ensured the continuation and consolidation of the English Reformation, for which he was praised by contemporary European Protestants, and which his sister, the Catholic Mary, who succeeded his as Queen of England, was unable to reverse.

The portrait was first recorded in the collection of Samuel Day (1757-1806), at Hinton Charterhouse, in Somerset. In 1786 Samuel married Mary Jacob, who inherited Hinton Charterhouse from her uncle, John Harding, High Sheriff of Somerset, whose father, also John, had bought the house in 1700. Originally part of the Carthusian Monastery which stood nearby, the house, also known as The Grange, is first recorded in Leland's account to Sir Walter Hungerford (1574-1589). Then part of the vast Hungerford estates, in which it remained for much of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it was at one stage the home of Prince Henry Stuart, and his brother Charles, later King Charles I.

A copy of the dendrochronology report on this painting was available.

1. The attribution of the Hampton Court painting to Scrots was confirmed with almost complete certainty in 1951 by Dr Auerbach (see E. Auerbach, 'Holbein's Followers in England', Burlington Magazine, XCIII, 1951, pp. 45-50).  
Literature -
Rev. J. Nightingale, The Beauties of England and Wales, London 1813, part I, vol. XIII, p. 456 (as 'by Holbein');

Hinton Household Inventory Entailed by the Will of the late Thomas Jones Esq., unpublished MS., 23-28 August 1848, p. 2 (as 'Edward 4
in a carved frame 37 inches by 29 in rich regal robes' - £45);

O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of her Majesty the Queen, London 1963, text vol., p. 66, under no. 49

Notes adapted from Sotheby's Sale Catalogue of 4 July 2012 - lot 10.
William (Guilim) Scrots ( active 1537 - 53) 
167 x 90.5 cms.
Royal Collection.
This is a version of arguably the most important official portrait of Edward VI which was painted by the Flemish artist William Scrots. The original portrait type, from which this derives, probably originated in 1550 during the marriage negotiations between Edward VI and the eldest daughter of Henri II of France. It became a popular image, and many versions exist. 
Purchased by Queen Victoria in 1882.
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
Portrait of Edward VI
Perhaps by Guilim Scrots.
Royal Collection.
Oil on lined canvas, 352 x 427 mm.
This is an early derivation from the full-length portrait of Edward VI attributed to the Flemish artist William Scrots (RCIN 405751). Head-and -shoulders portraits of monarchs were popular and often hung as part of sets of portraits of monarchs.           
Possibly first recorded in the Royal Collection during the reign of Elizabeth I
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
Another version by or after Guilim Scrots in the Louvre, Paris
Engraving of Edward VI
186 x 126 mm
Anon. 17th century

Engraving of Edward VI.
Enia Vica. 1547.
British Museum.
Engraving by Simon de Passe,
sold by John Sudbury, and sold by George Humble
line engraving, published 1620.
185 x 112 mm.
Engraving by Michael Burghers. c 1700.
164 x 101 mm.
British Museum
Engraving Edward VI
by Pieter Stevens van Gunst, after Adriaen van der Werff.
320 x 184 mm.
© National Portrait Gallery, London.
Engraving of Edward VI
P. Vanderbanck after Edward Luttrell 1706.
293 x 202 mm.
© National Portrait Gallery, London
Edward VI
Engraving by George Vertue c. 1732
From an original in Kensington Palace.
"90 x 182 mm.
© National Portrait Gallery, London
Watercolour of Edward VI.
George Vertue.
Watercolour and body colour heightened with gold.
Probably the original study for the engraving of 1732 (above).
This is a conflation of at least two earlier representations of Edward VI , 
two painting by Guilim Scrots or his studio.
A full length portrait version now in the Royal Collection.
193 x 148 mm.
British Museum.
Engraving of Edward VI.
George Vertue 1745.
Edward VI
Watercolour by George Vertue. 1745.
432 x 260 mm.
Royal Collection.
This watercolour shows the state of the oil portrait, which had been extended at top and bottom, in 1745. The extensions were removed in around 1800.
Purchased from the artist by George IV when Prince of Wales; recorded at Carlton House in 1816 and 1819.
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
Bronze Medallion of Edward VI
Jean Dassier. 1731.
41 mm diam.
Based on the Scrots Portrait in the Royal Collection or the engraving of this portrait by Simon de Passe of 1620.
The obverse showing the infant Hercules strangling a dragon (representing Catholicism).
Image Courtesy Ben Weiss.
The 16th century Leeds Castle Marble Busts.
The Lumley Marbles commissioned by 1st Lord Lumley.
Believed to have been made for the hall at Lumley castle prior to 1569.
Marble bust of Edward VI at Leeds Castle, Kent.
Copyright: © Courtauld Institute of Art
Copyright: © Courtauld Institute of Art
Marble bust of Henry VIII, Leeds Castle, Kent.
67.5 x 70 x 37 cm
Marble bust of Mary Queen of Scots, Leeds Castle, Kent
Copyright: © Courtauld Institute of Art
Marble bust of Elizabeth I at Leeds Castle, Kent.
Engraving of Elizabeth I
Frontispage to Compendiosa totius anatomie delineatio, ære exarata / per Thomam Geminum.
Dated 1559.
349 x 242 mm.
© National Portrait Gallery, London
 Another version of the Leeds castle marble bust of Elizabath I.
Height 667 mm.
Probably a 19th century copy judging from the inscription.
Currently on Display at Kenilworth Castle, Warwick shire.
© National Portrait Gallery, London
Extract from Lumley Inventory
Edward VI. 1737.
Peter Scheemakers
 St Thomas's Hospital.
 Preparatory drawing of Edward VI by Scheemakers
at the Harris Gallery, Preston.

Terracotta bust of Edward of Woodstock, the Black Prince, possibly from Prince Fredericks Temple in Carlton House Garden Termple.

Prince Edward of Woodstock, 'The Black Prince'.

One of Seven Terracotta Busts by Michael Rysbrack,
Accidently Destroyed when a Shelf Collapsed
at Windsor Castle in 1906.
The Original Photographs were taken by Livingstone in 1874 for a royal inventory.

The busts had been moved to Windsor Castle in 1825 when Queen Caroline’s library at St James’s Palace was demolished. 
Terracotta Bust of Edward of Woodstock, The Black Prince.
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
The variations of these busts derive from engravings by Renold Elstrack and from the Prince's tomb in Canterbury Cathedral.
Notes - 'Rysbrack depicts Edward the Black Prince, the son of King Edward III and Prince of Wales, as a military hero, wearing a coronet of stylised foliate motifs and a suit of armour with lion masks over the shoulders, a symbol Hercules and his strength. Edward is thought to have taken this name after the black colour of his armour and although he died before he could succeed his father to the throne he secured his son's ascension, who later became Richard II. His attire reflects the interpretation of earlier period dress and fashion that existed in the 18th century. It is likely that Rysbrack referred to images seen in contemporary history books or funerary monuments and effigies when designing the bust since the shape of the helmet is typical of 15th century armour and the moustache is commonly found in representations of medieval Knights.

In 1736, Queen Caroline, King George II’s consort, commissioned John Michael Rysbrack, a Flemish sculptor working in England, to create a series of terracotta busts of English sovereigns, of ‘all Kings of England from William the Conqueror’. In the early 18th century, a new fashion for representations and images of prominent historic figures or 'British Worthies' arose in England. With the arrival of a new protestant dynasty in 1714 there was a need to create a strong national identity. As well as a patron of the Arts, Queen Caroline was an influential political and intellectual figure of her time and with this commission she sought to establish direct links between the new Hanoverian protestant dynasty and England’s royal ancestry and historic past. 

George Vertue recorded a visit by Queen Caroline on 10 June 1735 to Rysbrack’s studio, where she was able to see ‘the Busts of Marble of Kings & Queens done lately by him to adorn some palace’. An article in the Gentleman’s Magazine a few weeks later noted that ‘Her Majesty has ordered Mr Risbrack to make the Bustos in Marble of all the Kings of England from William the Conqueror, in order to be placed in her New Building in the Gardens at Richmond’. Important as these early sources are, neither is completely accurate, for the series does not seem to have reached the marble stage, and there is no other contemporary reference to a series of kings at Richmond. These terracottas were in fact modelled for Queen Caroline’s Library at St James’s Palace. 

Whilst it may have been intended that the busts should then be carved in marble, the commission was annulled by the Queen’s death in November 1737. On 23 January 1738 Isaac Ware as Secretary of the Board of Works wrote to Rysbrack: ‘I am ordered … to acquaint You that [the Commissioners of Works] will Allow you the Price you have Charged them for the Busto’s in the Queens Library, but expect you will send them to the Office (there to be Lodged) the Models of the faces you made for Working after’. It seems that the terracottas themselves were displayed in the Library. The others in the series represented Alfred; Edward III; Philippa of Hainault; Henry V; Catherine of Valois; Henry VII; Elizabeth of York; Edward VII; Elizabeth I and Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales. Of the eleven terracotta sculptures that Rysbrack made only three survive: one of Edward VI (53346), another of Queen Elizabeth I (RCIN 45101) and this one of Edward, Prince of Wales, the Black Prince. The other busts were destroyed in 1906 when the shelf on which they stood at the Orangery in Windsor Castle collapsed. The busts had been moved to Windsor Castle in 1825 when Queen Caroline’s library at St James’s was demolished'.

Text adapted from The First Georgians; Art and Monarchy 1714 - 1760, London, 2014
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
Painted Terracotta Bust of Edward of Woodstock The Black Prince circa 1735.
 Recent photograph of the 1874 bust.
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
Warwick Castle Marble Bust of Edward of Woodstock - The Black Prince, circa 1736.
Sold Sotheby's lot 134, 9th December 2005.
This bust was recorded in an inventory taken at Warwick Castle in 1800 as being in the State Bedroom.
Katherine Eustace in the Sotheby's catalogue suggests that it might have gone to Warwick via Elizabeth Hamilton the wife of Francis Greville, Earl of Warwick (1719 -73) and goes on to suggest that it might have originally been in the Octagon in the Garden at Carlton House, Pall Mall. A voucher exists amongst the Duchy of Cornwall Papers, dated 1736 for busts of Frederick Prince of Wales (not identified yet), The Black Prince and King Alfred. Kate Eustace goes on to suggest that some kind of presentation of these semi-mythic figures from British history was intended. The Prince’s commission was, perhaps, an overt gesture in support of Richard Temple, Viscount Cobham, who had been deprived of his regiment by George II’s Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, tantamount in chivalric terms to being forbidden to bear arms.
Given that there is no provenance prior to 1800 for the marble bust of  Edward the Black Prince formerly at Warwick Castle it is a distinct possibility that it the bust from the Carlton House Pavilion.
I can find no record of any other Rysbrack busts of King Alfred other than the Stourhead Marble and the Stowe stone busts suggesting that the bust from Carlton House is still missing. 
Another possibility is a provenance to Adderbury, Oxfordshire, the house rebuilt for John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll and 1st Duke of Greenwich. Argyll was a career soldier who had fought under Marlborough in the War of the Spanish Succession, and had been victorious against the Scots at Sheriffmuir in 1715. He became the first ever Field Marshal.

In the gallery at Adderbury, built in 1731, a version of the Black Prince was one of six busts by Michael Rysbrack in a programme of military heroes ancient and modern. It was probably sold from Adderbury in the 1770s.
Stone bust of Edward of Woodstock, The Black Prince.
By Michael Rysbrack c. 1735.
'The Terror of Europe, the Delight of England;who preserv'd, unalter'd, in the Height of Glory and Fortune,
his natural Gentleness and Modesty'.

From the Temple of British Worthies designed by William Kent for Richard Temple 1st Viscount Cobham in the Garden at Stowe, Buckinghamshire. This bust has many differences particularly in the details of the armour, from the previously illustrated busts.
Iconography -

Engraving of Prince Edward of Woodstock, the Black Prince.
Book illustration to Thomas Fuller, 'The Holy State' (1642).
 by William Marshall.
Circa 1642
119 x 97 mm
British Museum
Engraving by Renold Elstrack
from Bazililogia, Book of Kings, 1618

Edward, the Black Prince, standing with spear and army in front of Poitiers. c.1625
by Thomas Cecill, pub. Roger Daniell at the Angel in Lombard Street, Pope's Head Alley
Lettered with titles in block in top left corner, and a dedication 'Dedicated to all the worthy and trew lovers of Archery. Thos Cecill sculp'. In lower part of design 'Are to be sold by Roger Daniel at the Angel in Lombard Street'
235 x 197 mm.
British Museum
Engraving by George Vertue
From Paul de Rapin - Thoyras
History of  of England. 1734 edition.
The title suggests that the image is based on the tomb at Canterbury
George Vertue. C. 1744.
The Monument of Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, The Black Prince
Canterbury Cathedral.
Photograph Courtesy The Guardian.