Friday 18 May 2018

Bust of Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury by Roubiliac, Codrington Library, All Souls, Oxford.

The Sculpture in the Codrington Library.
All Souls College, Oxford.

Part 32. The Life Size Marble Bust 
of Henry Chichele (1364 - 1443).
Archbishop of Canterbury (1414 - 43).
by Louis Francois Roubiliac (1702 - 62).
L.F. Roubiliac Fecit 1751.

In the Entrance Hall to the Codrington Library, All Souls.

The bust was originally  placed over the main door in the library.
 It was moved into the Hall in 1817.

I am once again very grateful to Dana Josephson for suggesting this project and for all his assistance in putting this post together.

I am also very grateful to Gaye Morgan Chief Librarian and conservator of the Codrington Library for making all the Codrington Library posts on this blog possible.


The intention in this blog entry is to post new and unpublished photographs of the 1751 historicising bust of Archbishop Chichele by Louis Francois Roubiliac and to attempt to show where he had derived his inspiration. 


The Iconography of Henry Chichele

The Painted Two Glass Portraits

There are two 15th century painted glass representations of the Archbishop - the full length portrait in the window in the Anti Chapel at All Souls College, Oxford and the bust length portrait in the window in the Library at Lambeth Palace.

The Two Life Size Carved Stone Statues

There are two 15th century full length carved stone statues of Chichele - one added to the much restored monument probably after his death in 1443, which was put up originally in 1426 in Canterbury Cathedral, and the Cotswold stone Statue at first erected in a niche above the gateway into All Souls College, Oxford. It now in the Anti Chapel at All Souls, Oxford.

The painted and engraved portraits.

It appears that there are two early painted panels - the anonymous, perhaps 15th century oil on board at Lambeth Palace (see below) and another version which was engraved for the Gentleman's Magazine in 1773 (see engraving below) and was in the possession of John Nichols the editor of the Magazine, which he gave to the Stationers Livery Company in the City of London in 1797.

In 1609 a portrait of Chichele by ' Samson ye painter' (Sampson Strong) was paid for by the Bursar at All Souls. It seems that there are two versions of this painting at All Souls, the copy with the inscription underneath (see below) has been photographed by Art UK for its website but the original has not (see photograph from Poole below)- this needs to be confirmed.

The portrait by Sonmans was recorded at All Souls by 1708. John Faber the elers engraving was obviously derived from the Sonmans portrait.

The portrait by Thornhill is difficult to date precisely but the evidence available would suggest that Thornhill used the engraving by John Faber the Elder to create it


For a brief biography of Chichele see -

see also -


The Monument to Henry Chichele in Canterbury Cathedral.
Designed by Thomas Mapilton - the lower level was in place by 1425.
Tomb had been completed by 1426 when there is a record of a sanctuary seeker who had fastened himself to it.

The monument was much restored in 1663- 4 after damage during Commonwealth and substantially restored again in 1897- 9.

With the substantial over painting it is very difficult to tell how much of the effigy of the archbishop is original.

The tomb has been cared for and kept up by an endowment from All Souls, Oxford.

This form of monument double decker tomb is known as a transi (or memento mori tomb, Latin for "reminder of death") is has a gisant (recumbent effigy tomb) featuring an effigy in the form of a decomposing corpse. It was probably the first of its type put up in England.

The Monuments to William Warham and Henry Chichele (on the right in the engraving) in the Choir at Canterbury Cathedral.

Engraving of drawings by George Cattermole; illustration to John Britton's 'The History and Antiquities of the Metropolitan Church of Canterbury' (London: Longman & Co, 1821).

230 x 284 mm.

See the various painted portraits below which appear to be loosely based on the effigy of the Archbishop in Canterbury Cathedral.

Image from the British Museum.


The Monument of Henry Chichele Archbishop of Canterbury, after E. Taylor, (1703) - NPG D24014 - © National Portrait Gallery, London

The Monument to Henry Chichele (Chichely).
Archbishop of Canterbury
After E. Taylor
378 x 284 mm (paper size).

Image from the National Portrait Gallery.


Image result for Archbishop Chichele Monument Canterbury
Related image

The monument was initially erected in 1426 probably without his effigy. Chichele, who died in 1443, therefore had plenty of time to contemplate his own mortality and to read the inscriptions on the stone slabs beneath both gisants (the recumbent effigies): 'I was a pauper born, then to primate here raised, now I am cut down and served up for worms ... Whoever who may be who will pass by, I ask for your remembrance.'

Image result for archbishop chichele in canterbury cathedral

2  Chichele cadaver


Image result for archbishop chichele transi


This print was made in 1772 and its frame was added slightly later. The print combines two techniques - etching and engraving. Both involved creating a pattern of grooves to hold ink in a metal printing plate. The etched lines were made using acid, while the engraved lines were scored by means of a sharp tool called a burin. The grooves were then filled with ink and the image was transferred onto a blank sheet of paper.

In 1438 Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury co-founded All Souls College at Oxford. Francesco Bartolozzi based this depiction of Chichele on an 18th-century drawing? which  recorded the stained glass window in All Souls College Chapel, (see below).

This print and its pair (museum no. W.98:1-2-1978) are thought to have originally belonged to the writer and collector Horace Walpole (1717-97) and to have hung in his Gothic-revival house at Strawberry Hill, near Twickenham in Middlesex. The style of the frame, with an inner Gothic arch and stylised flowers in the upper corners, would have fitted in well with the house's decoration. Both were sold in 1842, when the house contents were auctioned.

 After this the prints were for some time at Brookhill Hall in Nottinghamshire, before being spotted by a curator in an antique shop near the V&A, when they were bought by the Museum.


Victoria and Albert Museum.


Full-length portrait, standing, facing three-quarter to right, wearing a crown; in a gothic frame; after J. K. Sherwin.  1773  Etching with engraving

Higher resolution image of the same engraving

from the British Museum


Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury.

Stained and painted glass panel in the East Window, AnteChapel, All Souls College Oxford.

NB the detail of the collar of the Archbishop

15th Century.

Of the ancient stained glass only the four eastern windows of antechapel survive, but we possess a full description of all the glass (except the great west window and one of the other west windows, which had already perished), made by Richard Symonds in 1644.

see -

Collectanea, iv (O.H.S.), 131–3; F. E. Hutchinson, Medieval Glass at All Souls College (1949).

The History and Antiquities of the Colleges and Halls in the University of Oxford:
by Anthony à,Wood,  1632-1695; 
Published 1786.

Gutch, John, 1746-1831

The Second division of pt. 2 of Wood's "History and antiquities of the Universitie of Oxford". The complete work (in English ms.) was bought in 1670 by delegates of the Oxford press, translated into Latin, and published, 1674, under a Latin title. Dissatisfied with the translation, Wood rewrote his English ms. and bequeathed it to the University of Oxford. 
From this revised ms. Gutch published the present work

The very poor, low resolution photographs above, taken by the author - I had no idea at the time that I was taking a photograph of one of the earliest representations of the Archbishop - I try and take photographs of the painted and stained glass windows when I visit buildings - but given time constraints do not always succeed! In this case it was serendipity. I will hopefully return and obtain much higher resolution photographs of these windows.


Henry Chichele (c.1364–1443)

Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury.
In front of the Gateway to All Souls College with the statues of the Archbishop and Henry VI depicted in the pair of niches above the gateway.
James Thornhill (1675 - 1734).
Oil on Canvas
238 x 157 cms.

The details of this portrait would appear to be deived from the portrait by Solmans or the Faber engraving of the portrait - the depiction of the collar is particularly telling

Gift from Sir Nathaniel Lloyd (d.1745).

All Souls College, Oxford.


Portrait of Henry Chichele, founder of All Soul's College, Oxford, TQL, wearing mitre and bishop's robes, and holding a staff; wall and door of building behind; coat of arms in lower margin.  Mezzotint

Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury
Engraved by John Faber.
Inscribed with the dedication to Rev. Berard Gardiner (1688 - 1726)
Warden of All Souls College, Oxford.

John Faber senior (c.1660 - 1721)

259 x 202 mm.
c. 1710 - 21.

Lettered with full title: 'Henricus Chichley Archiep: Cant: Fundr: Coll: Omn: Animarum Ao. Do. 1437 Viro Gardiner L.L.Dri Coll: Omn: An: & Archiv: Un: Custodi nec non Academiae Vice Cancellario.'
Lettered at bottom right: 'Summ: cum Humil: & Observ:tio D.D.D. J Faber'
Numbered at lower right '11'

Curator's comments - One of a series of forty-five plates of portraits of the founders of Oxford and Cambridge colleges, Royal Exchange, and Charterhouse published by Thomas Taylor.

John Faber the Elder (c1660 - 1721).
(1707) Two Golden Balls, near the Savoy in the Strand (c.1716) Golden Eagle by the Fountain tavern, near Essex Street

Portrait miniaturist, writing master and mezzotinter. b. Holland, where drew portraits in fine pen and ink on vellum (see ECM). To England after 1696: first documented work in Britain in 1698. Adopted mezzotint c.1707, when he set up as publisher. 1711-12 series of Bodlein portraits; 1712-4 series of founders of Oxford and Cambridge colleges. Died Bristol; succeeded in business by his son, John Faber II.

Pub. Thomas Taylor  (fl. 1710 - 26)
The Golden Lion, Fleet Street, London

Printseller, published mezzotint portraits by Faber, and maps. His trade card is in the Bagford collection (Harley 5963 no.1): 'Thomas Taylor at the Golden Lyon near the Horne Tavern in Fleet Street London. Selleth all sorts of fine French, Italian and Dutch prints, and Mapps, large and small, Indian-picters, oyle-paintigns, and glass-paintings of all sizes and sorts of gilt frames both square and ovill. Likewise fitteth up staire cases and rooms with any of the aforesaid picters in frames at very reasonable rates'. He collaborated with Robert Hulton on a series of ports of England, launched in 1710 (Clayton p.75). Dead by 1729, when the business was taken over by Thomas Bakewell (Tyacke p.144). Two trade cards in Heal Collection. Heal,100.75+ has the identical text as the above (Harly 5963 no.1). Heal's annotations on mount: "An advertisement in 'Daily Courant' 5 June 1714, inserted by T. Taylor at above address, invited subscriptions to Shelley's 'Natural Writing' 2nd Part. In 1725 he published Halfpenny's 'Practical Architecture' from this address. Chubb, in his 'Printed Maps of Great Britain' makes him to be the same as Thomas Taylor, bookseller on London Bridge & gives the dates: - (1) Next door to the Beehive on London Bridge, 1671. (2) Hand and Bible in the New Buildings on London Bridge, 1673-'76. (3) Golden Lion, over against Serjeants Inn in Fleet Street up till 1721. He was still there in 1725 when he published Halfpenny's 'Practical Architecture'. Compare trade-card (Heal,100.76) in A.H. collection of Tho. Taylor, publisher of 'A New Book of Landskips' (a drawing book) at the Golden Lyon in Fleet Street." Heal,100.76 advertises "A New Book of Landskips or Pleasant Views Proper for Youth to Draw after Sold by Tho: Taylor at ye Golden Lyon in Fleet Street where may be had all Sorts of Drawing Books &c." Heal's annotations on mount similar to above.

Image and Text from British Museum.


Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury
258 x 200 mm.
c. 1770.

This is a reissue of the earlier John Faber mezzotint retouched with the Titles re engraved

The Hon Rev. John Tracy 7th Viscount Tracy (1722 - 93) was warden at All Souls College (1755 - 93).

Lettered with full title: 'Henricus Chichley Archiep: Cant: Fundr: Coll: Omn: Animarum Ao. Do. 1437 Viro Johan, Tracy, S.T.P. et istius Collegii Custodi, summa cum Humil. & Observan. D.D.D. H. Parker'

Lettered at bottom left: 'Printed for H. Parker, in Cornhill, London

Henry Parker (1725 - 1809)

82 Cornhill, London (opposite Birchin Lane) 1767-71 36 Cornhill ('opposite his late house', until 1774) White Lion Court, Birchin-lane (announcement of move in Daily Advertiser 18 Nov 1774)


Printseller, publisher, bookseller. Assistant to Thomas Bakewell from 1748; on his death became partner of his widow Elizabeth Bakewell (q.v.) from 1759(?). Bakewell and Parker published Richard Rolt's 'Loves of the Reformers', a work notable for its fine series of portraits. In 1774 Parker quitted business and purchased the office of chief clerk in the Chamberlain's Office at Guildhall in which capacity he served between 1786-91. Parker was called to the Court of the Stationers' Company in 1795-8, and served as Under Warden in 1799 and 1800, Upper Warden in 1800 and 1801 and served as Master in 1801. He died at Stoke Newington in 1809 aged 84. In vol.3 of his 'Literary Anecdotes', published in 1812, John Nichols describes Parker as '...sometime an eminent Stationer and printseller...Mr Parker was Master of the Company of Stationers in 1801; where (as in every other department of his life) his general knowledge of City business, and the remarkable placidity of his manners, very much endeared him to a circle of sincere friends'.

The painting (below) from which this engraving derives is related to the three images at the bottom of the page

British Museum.

Henry Chichele (1362?–1443)

Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury

Wilhelm Sonmans  (d.1708)
Oil on canvas
125 x 102 cms.

Bodleian Library

Image courtesy Art UK

see -

It appears that this painting is referred to Page 27 no 12 - A list of the Pictures in the Gallery of the Public Library at Oxford in

A portrait of the Archbishop is noted in A Letter, containing an Account of some Antiquities between Windsor and Oxford; with a list of the several pictures in the school-gallery adjoyning to the Bodlejan library by T. Hearne. First published in 1708.

Information above from the Edition of 1725 available on line Google Books's+Letter+...+with+a+list+of+the+several+pictures+in+the+School-gallery+adjoyning+to+the+Bodlejan+Library,&source=bl&ots=SPtDmfhPHV&sig=2suZJI8LK-AUBnd7z8lPXaSrDH8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjNs5_gqq3bAhXTe8AKHZITCzEQ6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=Chichele&f=false

After it had been damaged by rainwater (a blocked gutter in the roof, leading to leaks down the inside wall of Duke Humfrey’s Library at the Bodleian) the portrait was restored, revealing that it was signed and dated, Sonmans pinxit 1699. The available literature dated the series of College founders' portraits to the 1670's, The series may have commenced with the earlier date, but plainly was not finished until at least 1699 the date on the Sonmans portrait of Chichele.

I am awaiting Dana Josephson’s tidying up of attributions to be completed for this group of 21 portraits, which originally were all said to be by Sonmans (Rachel Poole, 1912). Later (1925) Mrs Poole corrected herself.

The dating is confusing. The earliest known record of paintings hanging in the Bodleian and in the Picture Gallery is in Anthony à Wood's History and antiquities of the Universitie of Oxford. The complete work (in English ms.) was bought in 1670 by delegates of the Oxford University press, translated into Latin, and published, 1674, under a Latin title.

Dissatisfied with the translation, Wood rewrote his English ms. and bequeathed it to the University of Oxford (Wood died 1695). From this revised ms. Gutch published his edition of Wood, 1786, in which he added paintings acquired since Wood's time. 

However, Thomas Hearne's Letter ... with a list of the several pictures in the School-gallery adjoyning to the Bodlejan Library, first published in 1708, already lists the portrait of Chichele.

This was information regarding the Sonmans portraits at the Bodleian kindly pointed out to me by Dana Josephson.


Portrait of Henry Chichele, bust-length, in an oval, slightly turned to the right, dressed in a fur-trimmed chasuble with a mitre on his head, his arms below  Engraving

Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury.
Drawn and Engraved by Michael Burghers (1647 - 1727).
Dutch engraver who lived in Oxford. He was responsible for engraving the Oxford Almanack from 1676.

295 x 186 mm.

C. 1700.

British Museum.


Portrait of Henry Chichele, bust-length, in an oval, slightly turned to the right, dressed in a fur-trimmed chasuble with a mitre on his head, his arms below on a pedestal, illustration to "The Life of Archbishop Chichele"  Engraving

Illustration to The Life of Archbishop Chichele
Michael Burghers (1647 - 1727).
157 x 92 mm.

The detail of the collar is telling - probably taken from the original by Sonmans above

This plate was the Frontispiece to The Life of Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury…now made English by Arthur Duck, LL.D., published by Richard Chiswell, London, 1699.
This info from Victoria and Albert Museum website (no illustration but sizes given

Image courtesy British Museum.

Henry Chichele
Life size Stone Statue
Formerly paired with a statue of Henry VI in niches above the entrance gateway to All Souls College, High Street, Oxford visible in the Thornhill Portrait above.

In the Anti Chapel, All Souls College Chapel, Oxford

Photograph taken by the author.


Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury
by Louis Francois Roubiliac.

Cost £52 10s.

The terracotta for this bust described as Archbishop Chicheley was sold at the Roubiliac Studio sale in St Martins Lane, Lot 86, 2nd day, Thursday May 13th, 1762. 

Disappeared - hopefully it will turn up one day.

All photographs above taken by the Author.


Portrait of Henry Chichele, half-length, slightly turned to the right, blessing with one hand and with a cross in the other, dressed in a chasuble with a mitre on his head, his arms above, illustration to the 'Gentleman's Magazine" (1783)  Engraving

Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury
Engraving from the Gentleman's Magazine, April 1773.

Inscribed - From an Original on Board in the possession of J. Nichols.

151 x 98 mm.

John Nichols FSA, (1745 - 1826) Printer and Editor of the Gentleman's Magazine

This engraving is derived from (a version of) the Lambeth Palace portrait of Chichele below.

Currently I do not know when the portrait below entered the Collection at Lambeth Palace (research continues....).

John Nichols FRS (1745 - 1826)

Whitefriars, London (until 1767) Red Lion Passage, Fleet Street, London (1767-1819, destroyed by fire 1808) Thavies Inn (1808-11, whilst refurbishing Red Lion Passage)

founder of the prominent family of printers and publishers, editors of the Gentleman's Magazine and many antiquarian publications, fl.c. 1760-1939. His son was John Bowyer Nichols (q.v.). He was apprenticed to the Bowyer printing office in 1759 (although he had been working there since 1757), his master being William Bowyer the younger (q.v.) and became a junior partner shortly after obtaining his freedom in 1766, and an equal partner in 1773..

Nichols & Son (1812)

Nichols, Son & [Samuel] Bentley 1812 - 9


According to The Dictionary of Printers and Printing... by CH Timperley pub. 1939, John Nichols in 1771  gave the Stationer's Company a portrait of Robert Nelson Esq. and another of  the printer William Bowyer and a bust of his son William Bowyer.

In 1797 he gave the Stationers Company the portraits of Chichele, Sir Richard Steele and Matthew Prior 

Image and Biog. from British Museum.


Henry Chichele (c.1364–1443), Archbishop of Canterbury

Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury.
49 x 39 cms.
Oil on Board.

They say 15th Century.

The detail of the collar suggests that it is ultimately either derived from the painted glass window in the library at Lambeth Palace or that if the painting is as early as the Website suggests then it is possible that the painted glass was derived from this portrait.

Lambeth Palace.

Image courtesey Art U.K.


Archbishop Chichele

Henry Chichele

Oil on Board
35 x 24 cms.
It is undated and the website gives no date of aquisition.

A portrait of Chichele at New College is recorded in History of  the Colleges .... Oxford by Alex. Charmers pub. 1810.

New College, Oxford

Image Courtesy Art UK.

Henry Chichele (c.1364–1443), Archbishop of Canterbury

Henry Chichele.

Perhaps a later copy of the painting on panel above.
Oil on canvas.
127 x 107 cms.

New College Oxford.

Image courtesy Art UK.


Henry Chichele (c.1364–1443)

Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury.
Oil on Canvas
118.1 x 89 cms.

Website says - 1609.

All Souls College, Oxford
Image from Art U.K.


Henry Chichele (c.1364–1443)

Henry Chichele
Archbishop of Canterbury

They say copy after Sampson Strong (1550 - 1611)?
Oil on canvas.
119.4 x 91.5.

This portrait is ultimately derived from the painted glass portrait in the Library at Lambeth Palace (see engraving below).

Given by Mrs Catherine Griffith. 1799.
recorded in store in 1925 by Mrs Lane Poole.

All Souls College, Oxford.
Image from Art U.K.

Mrs Reginald Lane Poole in her Catalogue of 1925 states that the portrait of the Founder is recorded in the Bursars Roll of 1609 payment of £5 to Samson ye Painter for the Founders Picture (below).

Henry Chichele by Samson ye Painter in the Common Room at All Souls in 1925.
Illustration from Lane Poole, 1925.

See -

Although recorded by Mrs Lane Poole the Original does not appear to have been photographed by Art UK


Henry Chichele
Unidentified engraving
16.05 x 10.6 cms
Probably late 18th early 19th century.

Based on the original portrait by Solmans or one of the two later engravings by John Faber Senior (see the painting and engravings above).

Image from the Print Room of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery.


Portrait of Henry Chichele from a stained glass window, half-length, slightly turned to the right, dressed in a chasuble with a mitre on his head, a Latin inscription about the portrait, illustration to Brayley and Herbert's "Lambeth Illustrated" (1806)  Stipple and etching

Portrait of Henry Chichele 
Archbishop of Canterbury.

Lettered below image "Engraved by R. Roffe from the Painted Glass, in the Library of Lambeth Palace"

Published for W. Herbert, Globe Place & E. W. Brayley, Wilderness Row; May 1. 1805."

from a painted glass window, half-length, slightly turned to the right, dressed in a chasuble with a mitre on his head, a Latin inscription about the portrait, 

Illustration to Brayley and Herbert's "Lambeth Illustrated" 
Stipple and etching.
268 x 192 mm.

© The Trustees of the British Museum.

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